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This behavior is mainly opportunistic , though some are highly attracted to old fruit, notably Satyrinae e. Neorina lowii and Limenitidinae such as Bassarona dunya. Carrion is usually more intentionally utilized. Carrion-feeders seem to represent a different feeding guild from "classical" mud-puddlers and fruit-feeders. They include diverse taxa , e. Carrion-feeding has evolved independently in several lineages. Specialist carrion-feeders may even have the ability to smell out and home in on rotting meat over hundreds of meters.

In the Bornean Charaxinae , specialist Charaxes bernardus or opportunistic some other Charaxes and Polyura tend to have a markedly larger bulk and smaller wings, making them more dashing, maneuvrable flyers than fruit specialists like Prothoe franck and opportunistic fruit visitors such as Charaxes durnfordi.

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Other butterflies like most Pieridae , Papilionidae and Morphinae are rarely if ever seen on carrion, dung and rotting fruit, though they may be avid mud-puddlers in the strict sense. Altogether, the Nymphalidae show the highest variety of nutrient-gathering strategies among the butterflies; the Limenitidinae have numerous mud-puddlers that also frequently visit dung but avoid fruits and carrion namely the genus Limenitis , [6] and some which are attracted to any pungent substance. Certain moths , mainly of the subfamily Calpinae , are somewhat notorious for their blood- and tear-drinking habits.

Hemiceratoides hieroglyphica of Madagascar has been noted to visit and suck tears by inserting their proboscis into the closed eyelids of roosting birds.

Ophthalmotropy eye-attraction and lachryphagy tear drinking occur in a number of unrelated moths that visit mammals. Mecistoptera griseifusa is a notable example. The minerals, which can also be obtained from more typical mud-puddling behavior, are used for the butterfly's spermatophores during sexual reproduction. Blue lesser purple emperor Apatura ilia f. Cyclosia papilionaris feeding on a bird dropping. Common Baron Euthalia aconthea sipping from a guava fruit. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

10 Puddle Play Investigations

Ecological Entomology 21 2 : Oecologia 1 : — Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 55 1 : 73— Entomologist : Journal of Tropical Ecology 22 1 : 25— Latin American Insects and Entomology. University of California Press. Insects and Human Life.

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Tropical Ecology 42 2 : Physiological Entomology 12 4 : — PNAS 93 2 : — Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56 4 : — Smedley in Resh, V. Encyclopedia of Insects. Small wildlife may be attracted to puddles. Puddles in natural landscapes and habitats , when not resulting from precipitation , can indicate the presence of a seep or spring. Small seasonal riparian plants, grasses , and wildflowers can germinate with the ephemeral "head start" of moisture provided by a puddle.

Small wildlife, such as birds and insects, can use puddles as a source of essential moisture or for bathing.

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Raised constructed puddles, bird baths , are a part of domestic and wildlife gardens as a garden ornament and "micro-habitat" restoration. Swallows use the damp loam which gathers in puddles as a form of cement to help to build their nests. Many butterfly species and some other insects, but particularly male butterflies, need puddles for nutrients they can contain, such as salts and amino acids.

In a behaviour known as puddling they seek out the damp mud that can be found around the edge of the puddles. For some smaller forms of life, such as tadpoles or mosquito larvae, a puddle can form an entire habitat.

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Puddles that do not evaporate quickly can become standing water , which can become polluted by decaying organisms and are often home to breeding mosquitos , which can act as vectors for diseases such as malaria and, of more recent concern in certain areas of the world, West Nile virus. Puddles commonly form during rain , and can cause problems for transport. Due to the angle of the road, puddles tend to be forced by gravity to gather on the edges of the road.


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This can cause splashing as cars drive through the puddles, which causes water to be sprayed onto pedestrians on the pavement. Irresponsible drivers may do this deliberately, which, in some countries, can lead to prosecution for careless driving.

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Puddles commonly form in potholes in a dirt road, or in any other space with a shallow depression and dirt. In such cases, these are sometimes referred to as mud puddles , because mud tends to form in the bottoms, resulting in dirtied wheels or boots when disturbed. In order to deal with puddles, roads and pavements are often built with a camber technically called 'crowning' , being slightly convex in nature, to force puddles to drain into the gutter, which has storm drain grates to allow the water to drain into the sewers.

In addition, some surfaces are made to be porous, allowing the water to drain through the surface to the aquifer below. Due to the action of surface tension , small puddles can also form if a liquid is spilt on a level surface. Puddles like this are common on kitchen floors. Puddles tend to evaporate quickly due to the high surface-area-to-volume ratio and tend to be short lived.

In cold conditions puddles can form patches of ice which are slippery and difficult to see and can be a hazard to road vehicles and pedestrians. Puddles are a source of recreation for children, who often like jumping in puddles as an "up-side" to rain. Muddy puddles, and the pleasures of splashing mud in them, are a repeated theme in the children's animation Peppa Pig , to the extent of selling character-branded wellington boots.

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It has been fashionable for millennia, and continues to be fashionable in some circles, to believe the Universe is designed for humans. Some critics of this view reject it as hubris or anthropocentrism and argue instead that through the process of evolution it is humans that have adapted to or been shaped by the Universe.


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  5. In fact, it fits me staggeringly well, must have been made to have me in it! When Walter Raleigh met Queen Elizabeth I , Raleigh is reputed to have thrown his coat over a muddy puddle to allow the Queen to cross without getting her feet wet as an act of chivalry.


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    Medieval legend spoke of one man who was desperate to find building materials for his house, so he stole cobblestones from the road surface. The remaining hole filled with water and a horseman who later walked through the 'puddle' actually found himself drowning. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A small accumulation of liquid, usually water, on a surface.

    This article is about the liquid phenomenon. For other uses, see Puddle disambiguation.