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An up to date complete and authoritative educational and reference volume covering the entire spectrum of advanced MR neuroimaging is a difficult task to accomplish, but the book edited by Dr Tsougos excels in meeting this need. This book is written by an international author recognized worldwide as a leaders in his field and his extensive experience and practical knowledge is logically presented, well organized and brilliantly visualized.

Advanced MR Neuroimaging is a comprehensive text and all the chapters are comprehensive. The book is wonderfully well illustrated. I warmly recommend this text to researchers who are interested in a comprehensive introduction to advanced MR neuroimaging. The approach adopted by the author is very informative and easy to navigate, with chapters devoted to four major techniques Diffusion, Perfusion, MRS and fMRI , each one immediately followed by an "Artifacts and Pitfalls" chapter with hints and tips on practical implementation.

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The book is rounded off with a chapter on the assessment of cerebral tumours by multiparametric MR, which ties everything together. We provide complimentary e-inspection copies of primary textbooks to instructors considering our books for course adoption. Most VitalSource eBooks are available in a reflowable EPUB format which allows you to resize text to suit you and enables other accessibility features.

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For both formats the functionality available will depend on how you access the ebook via Bookshelf Online in your browser or via the Bookshelf app on your PC or mobile device. Stay on CRCPress. Preview this Book. Add to Wish List. Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Summary Over the last decade, some of the greatest achievements in the field of neuroimaging have been related to remarkable advances in magnetic resonance techniques, including diffusion, perfusion, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI.

Diffusion MR Imaging 2. Perfusion MR Imaging 4. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 6. Articles in the December issue discuss various health issues affecting school-aged children, including acne, eczema and growth disorders. Volume 45, No.

3T MRI in clinical practice

Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI has become a mainstream neuroimaging modality in the assessment of patients being evaluated for brain tumour and epilepsy surgeries. Thus, it is important for doctors in primary care settings to be well acquainted with the present and potential future applications, as well as limitations, of this modality. The objective of this article is to introduce the theoretical principles and state-of-the-art clinical applications of fMRI in brain tumour and epilepsy surgery, with a focus on the implications for clinical primary care.

With an increasing number of patients undergoing fMRI, general practitioners can expect questions about the current and emerging role of fMRI in clinical care from these patients and their families. In just two decades, and with years of scientific advances worthy of multiple Nobel prizes, functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI is now a mainstream neuroimaging modality in specialised centres worldwide.

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Clinical fMRI is a technique that uses a standard MRI scanner to provide non-invasive functional mapping of brain activity during performance of dedicated motor, language, memory or visually based tasks called paradigms. The contributions of fMRI to the field of cognitive neuroscience have been vast; however, these are beyond the scope of this review. Currently, the principal clinical application of fMRI is in advanced neurosurgical planning for patients undergoing surgery for brain tumours or epilepsy.

In this article, we will introduce the basic physical principles of fMRI, details of its current clinical uses and limitations, and consider promising directions for future uses in clinical medicine, with a focus on implications for primary care. Neurons in the brain of a living human require a continuous supply of glucose from the blood. The change in oxygen extraction manifests as an increased ratio of oxygenated haemoglobin oxyHb to deoxygenated haemoglobin deoxyHb on either side of the capillary bed.

This alteration is measurable using the blood oxygen level—dependent BOLD effect, the most frequently used physical means for generating fMRI data. While oxyHb is diamagnetic weakly repelled from the field , deoxyHb is paramagnetic weakly attracted to the field ; accordingly, the amount and quality of MR signal derived from each is different. By measuring the BOLD effect when the subject is at rest, and comparing this with the amount of signal generated during a carefully designed paradigm that is targeted at a particular functional process eg motor, language-based, memory-based, visual , the precise functional localisation of nerve cells within the brain can be colour-mapped in healthy and diseased states.

These functional maps can be co-registered with MRI anatomical data to provide detailed cortical activation maps for specialist interpretation. The majority of paradigms manipulate cognitive processes and are planned to occur over a period of a few seconds. Additional information can be acquired from dedicated MRI sequences designed for patients with brain tumours and epilepsy, as well as white matter tract imaging tractography using diffusion tensor imaging DTI.

DTI is a complementary MRI technique that uses complex mathematics to accurately quantify directionality of water molecule movement along white matter tracts. For instance, these tracts may be disturbed by infiltrating or space-occupying tumours. This information can be colour-coded and represented with fMRI data on structural brain images.

Recent studies have also found that useful connectivity information may be derived from resting-state fMRI intrinsic brain activity while doing nothing , particularly in patients without the capacity to follow the paradigms, and in less time, but with reduced test—retest reliability. The capacity to map blood flow variation related to brain activation during structured active tasks has led to a new understanding of neuroanatomy. These maps have been partially reproduced using fMRI. The primary visual cortex is located in the striate cortex, mainly along the calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe.

There is far greater variability in brain cortex representations of other important functions, including language and memory. Complete surgical resection of a brain tumour or AVM potentially endangers regions of functionally eloquent cortex or critical white matter pathways, posing a risk of a permanent neurological deficit to the patient.

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This can help surgical teams plan how a radical resection might be safely achieved. This is particularly important when normal anatomical landmarks are moved or damaged by the lesion Figures 1, 2. By contrast, traditional methods of mapping the relationship between a tumour and nearby eloquent cortex are invasive. These currently include:.

Figure 1. Example of combined fMRI and DTI informing a surgical approach on a man, 60 years of age, with known lung cancer who presented with seizures, followed by persisting right-sided weakness right side of image is left side of patient A. Pre-operative coronal post-contrast T1 sequence shows a left parafalcine ring-enhancing tumour. An appropriate neurosurgical approach was planned.

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Create Alert. Share This Paper. Topics from this paper. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Platelet Glycoprotein 4, human. Citations Publications citing this paper. Ahmad , Christopher G. Roth , Donald G. Kaggie , Surrin S. MRI safety risks in the obese: The case of the disposable lighter stored in the pannus H. Michael Gach , Stacie L. Hierarchical clustering using equivalence test : application on automatic segmentation of dynamic contrast enhanced image sequence Fuchen Liu. References Publications referenced by this paper.